FAQ Glossary
dB (Decibel)
The standard unit used to express gain or loss of power between two values. A decibel is 10 times the logarithm of a ratio of two power values. When comparing voltage or pressure, the values in the ratio are squared or the log is multiplied by 20 instead of 10. An extension is placed behind the ‘dB’ when one of those values is a fixed reference (i.e. dBV, dBu, dBSPL).
Direct Current. The flow of electrons in one direction.
Dolby® Digital
A digital audio encoding and decoding technology utilized for DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, video games, and many cable and satellite television services. Also referred to as “AC-3.” Dolby Digital can transmit mono or standard two-channel stereo audio, as well as 5.1 channel surround sound (left front, center front, right front, left rear, right rear, and sub-woofer).
Dolby® TrueHD
An advanced, lossless multi-channel audio encoder and decoder technology intended primarily for high-definition content and is optional for Blu-ray Disc; support for TrueHD is also optional in the HDMI 1.3 specification. TrueHD supports up to 8 discrete audio channels at 96 kHz sampling, or up to 6 channels at 192 kHz sampling. Since TrueHD is optional for Blu-ray Disc, discs encoded with a TrueHD audio track must also include a separate 2-channel digital audio track.
Dynamic range
The highest and lowest potential signal levels on a given device. Also applies to fiber optic applications in terms of the ratio between the most – or strongest – and least – or weakest – observable optical signals.
EQ (Audio)
Equalizer. An audio signal processor used to add or attenuate frequencies in order to change the character of the resulting sound. EQ’s are properly used with a reference signal (see pink noise) and a real- time analyzer to ensure that the sound from the speakers closely matches the original sound.
A Local Area Network (LAN) standard officially known as IEEE 802.3. Ethernet and other LAN technologies are used for interconnecting computers, printers, workstations, terminals, servers, etc. within the same building or campus. Ethernet operates over twisted pair and over coaxial cable at speeds starting at 10Mbps. For LAN interconnectivity, Ethernet is a physical link and data link protocol reflecting the two lowest layers of the OSI Reference Model.
Frequency range (audio)
The range of frequencies between high and low end points; for example, in audio, the frequency range of the human ear is said to be 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. Individual speaker elements like woofers, midranges and tweeters serve different frequency ranges within the overall audio frequency range.
Frequency response
The frequency range over which signals are reproduced within a stated amplitude range. Generally expressed in Hz vs. dB. For example: 100 - 5000 Hz +/- 3dB means that the device can handle a frequency range of 100 to 5000 Hz with a possible deviation in amplitude within that frequency range of +3 to -3dB.
H.264 Encoding
A standard for video compression equivalent to MPEG-4 Part 10 or MPEG-4 AVC – Advanced Video Coding. H.264 was created to provide video quality suitable for high definition applications at bit rates lower than that utilized in MPEG-2, the compression standard used in DVD authoring.